Europe & Central Asia » Spain

1) Madrid Metropolitan (Regional) Plan: English Synthesis
  Madrid Reticular Matrix Metropolitan Regional Plan
  The 1996 Madrid Metropolitan Plan created a new and revolutionary method of metropolitan planning, the CiTiMethod, which is also applicable to other world metropolises.

The core of the Metro-Matrix Method, and its direct applications and adaptations to particular circumstances, presents numerous solutions for the very serious challenge the 21st Century is confronting: the explosion of urban growth and the establishment of metropolitan megalopolises. The Metro-Matrix Method is one way to address this issue and provides a solution for many metropolitan governments, as it has for Madrid since 1996. This methodology has been applied to many other metropolises subsequently.

1996 Madrid Metropolitan Plan is essential to understand how to tackle the challenging issue of metropolitan explosion for the future of world sustainability, preventing the actual trend of producing a 'world of slums'. The set of policy proposals, the way to address the metropolitan structure in an exploding context can be approached in his McGraw Hill Education book: The Art of Shaping the Metropolis

Full Document of Madrid Metropolitan (regional) Plan: See General Documents
2) Madrid/Arpegio Land Management Model
  Pedro B. Ortiz Metro Matrix Arpegio Metropolitan Land Management Model
  Madrid 1995. Arpegio was a publicly 100% owned private firm. 100% owned by the State Government of Madrid (Comunidad Autonoma). The purpose of the firm was to develop industrial real-estate to offer a good, affordable, accessible and competitive location for firms within Madrid State. In 1995, following July elections, the new government extended the purpose as well to residential real-estate development.

Madrid’s State Government developed in six months, through the Urban and Regional Planning General Directorate, the Metropolitan Plan of Madrid. Approved and enforced since March 1st, 1996. The strategic position and the role vocation of metropolitan areas were well established. Arpegio was able to address and negotiate with landowners the acquisition of developable land at market prices thought to be strategic for the development of Madrid.
Madrid Strategic Plan 1994: Phase 1
  Madrid Strategic Plan Metro Matrix Metropolitan
  Madrid in 1989 confronted many challenges. It had to take a leading role in National and International terms.

The Strategic Plan of 1994 played two very relevant goals:
1) It developed a Dialogue among decision-makers. Overall 400 were involved. 400 leaders of all economic, social, academic and political sectors. They were able under the Strategic Plan to achieve a consensus about the future of Madrid. This had many beneficial effects on coordination Public and Private policies, strategies and efforts. A multiplier effect was the outcome and it propelled Madrid economic and social role in Spain as never before.

2) It defined the Economic and Social Targets and objectives for the future of Madrid. All of them consistent and coordinated. These socio-economic objectives fed the 1996 Metropolitan Plan of Madrid. (see: ) The Metropolitan Plan became the physical expression of these strategies and supported them for an interactive synergic effect.

Madrid was able due to this Plan and its implemented proposals (see: Madrid Metropolitan (Regional) Plan effects 10 years later. At: ) to become the turning table between Europe and Latin America as proven by the fact that Madrid Airport jumped from 9 to 53 million passengers generating 220.000 jobs.

Some local politicians, like the later to be President of the Region, Esperanza Aguirre, unaware of the relevance of dialogue as part of the effects of efficient Governance, made public their local ideological approach by declaring that the Plan, as not to be approved for compulsory enforcement, was useless.
Madrid Strategic Plan 1994: Phase 2
  Madrid Strategic Plan Metro Matrix
  There are 2 ways to produce a Strategic Plan: with ‘figures’ or with ‘words’.
- A ‘figures’ Strategic Plan requires a strong technical background, the extrapolation of tendencies in economics and social terms, and the setting up of policies that will take those tendencies to the desired direction.
- A ‘words’ Strategic Plan requires to build up a consensus among the stakeholders: Corporate and citizens in general. Corporate stakeholders organized around discussion tables where they bring about their complex objective and subjective knowledge share at the end of the Plan a common set of objectives for the metropolis, Region or City.

The discussion/consensus building takes 4 Phases:
1) Analysis of problems and potentials.
2) Determination of the factors that affect the issues.
3) Definition of the actions to influence those factors.
4) Design of the programs to undertake those actions.

Up to 400 decision-makers were involved in this process. In the phase upfront they were more academic and theoretical thinkers. At the later phases they were action men involved in political and entrepreneurial management. The substitution was progressive and some of them were involved in two consecutive phases to provide continuity.

The result was a success of flowing discussion and consensus building. Madrid became even more the motor of Spain with a defined global-international role.
3) Plan Regional de Madrid 1996: Spanish
  Madrid Metropolitan Regional Reticular Matrix Plan
  The Madrid Metropolitan Plan was approved for political implementation the 1st of March 1996 as the vision and Government Guideline for territorial management and public infrastructure investment of the Regional Government of Madrid. Later, it was approved in draft phase (administrative implementing capacity) in 1997 by the Regional Parliament (Asamblea Regional). It was applied as a piece of enforceable planning until the new Planning Law of 2001 that remove the legal background for enforcement. It still influences many planning decisions in Madrid 16 years later (ie: Gran Transversal Ferroviaria of the National Government 2007).

The impact of the Regional Plan is due to several methodological reasons: The first is that it is based on the dialogue between the different administrations that are involved in Land Use decision-making. The second is that dialogue is approached from a very clear standpoint by the Regional Government. That standpoint (the Regional Plan) is flexible and adaptable, but capable of making precise decisions out of compromise and agreement by all parties. The third is that once Land Use planning decisions are made, the effect is long term. The side and derivative effects are multiple and concatenated. The fourth is that once the main pieces are set up on a chess board (MetroCiTi Method), the strategy of the game is set up forever. That had been the strategy of the Plan from 1996 to 1999.

Since the Region of Madrid is evolving in a natural form, the way it was defined in that implementation period. Agreements with 66% of Lord Majors for the growth of their cities and villages, the future airport location, the linear-reticular reshaping structure of the M-45 layout, or the extension of the Commuter rail system and Metro-Sur (all part of the Regional Plan of 1996) have all been elements that have shaped the Madrid Metropolitan Structure forever.
4) La Ordenacion Reticular del Territorio. Plan Regional de Madrid. Bilingual: Spanish-English
  Madrid Reticular Matrix Metropolitan Plan Diagram
  The Metro CiTi Method was first applied to the Madrid Metropolitan (Regional) Plan of March 1, 1996, 50 years after Bidagor's last Madrid Metropolitan Plan of 1946. None has been drafted or approved since.

The method’s name was 'Ordenacion Reticular del Territorio' in Spanish. This article published in the 'Urban' magazine’s first issue explains the theory behind the method and its main lines of description and application, both in general and in the Madrid case.
Murcia Estrategia Territorial
  Murcia Urban Acupuncture Mental Map Strategic Regional Plan Metro matrix
  Murcia, in southeastern Spain, has always been a prime quality agricultural emporium for its citric production in the irrigated valleys. The concentration of land and the limited capitalization were the cause of important social disequilibrium and low economic development. The opening of the European markets through the new commercial routes spurred unprecedented economic growth.
The diversity of landscapes and economic potential, and the need to reach all territories and social strata, requires an integrated territorial strategy that works to improve accessibility and economic and social facilities that spread development opportunities.
Implement an understanding of the spatial dimension of the development is the basis for a successful policy to pursue these objectives.
5) Madrid Metropolitan (Regional) Plan effects 10 years later.
  Madrid Metropolitan Regional Reticular Matrix Plan success effect implemented projects
  March 1st, 2006, marked the 10-year anniversary of the Regional Plan of Madrid’s revision and implementation.

The first 4 years, 1996-1999, were crucial to make agreements with the different institutions and levels of government involved in territorial decision making in Madrid (See the principles of this technical and political dialogue in the Inter-jurisdictional ‘General Document’: Long and Wide, Variable Geometry, Sliding Horizon, Diachronic and Synchronic Consensus).

Those agreements have taken in many cases more than ten years to be realized. Urban Master Plans and large infrastructures take 8 to 12 years to program and 4 to 8 years to build up. Their decisions and sequential effects take even longer.

Decisions taken in that short period have shaped the Metropolis of Madrid for the future. When you place the main chess pieces (Queen, Towers, Horses and Bishops) on a chessboard, the game is definitively determined. That was the strategy of the 1996 Regional Plan of Madrid. The future airport of Campo Real, the M-45 shaping Madrid in a linear form, the 50 UDE’s (BUD’s: Balanced Urban Development municipal units) agreements, the structuring logistic parks of Torrejon and Getafe, are all strategic decisions that have shaped Madrid the way the Plan envisioned.

The Plan is no longer in force, but the decisions taken in that period, and up to 2001 by the responsible civil servants in subsequent charge of it, have determined (and continue to determine) the shape of Madrid Metropolis for years to come.
Navarra Estrategia Territorial
  Navarra (Spain) Regional Metropolitan Urban Strategy Planning national context
  Navarra, in the southern slope of the Pyrenees, has historically been one of the leading economical and political regions of Spain. Governance and wealth have always been a characteristic of Navarra. This position requires strong efforts to adapt to new social and economic paradigms.
The immigrant labor force of the agricultural production in the Ebro Valley — as well as the one of the Pamplona Industrial complex — must be integrated into an ageing social structure. Social facilities and economic infrastructure policies require a strategic spatial dimension.
6) Madrid Strategic Regional Plan
  ISOCARP Valverde Madrid Metropolitan Regional Reticular Matrix Plan
  ‘Actions for the metropolitan area: success and limitations’

Presentation of the Madrid Strategic Plan at the 40th ISoCaRP Congress in 2004, from Francisco Valverde (former civil servant in charge of the implementation of the Regional Plan with the 180 Madrid municipalities) and Teresa Franchini.
Territorializacion de Navarra
  Navarra (Spain) Regional Metropolitan Urban Strategy Planning territorial context
  Navarra is composed of 3 parallel strips running east west: 1) The Pyrenees with its perpendicular deep narrow valleys. 2) The large/intermediate Pamplona valley and 3) the Ebro plain.
The socio-economic and political relations with the Basque Country to the west and with Aragon to the east do introduce gradients in these strips.
Each of these areas is differentiated and requires a specific set of social, economic and physical policies.
Plan de equilibrio económico-ambiental de Doñana
  Andalucia Urban Acupuncture Mental Map Strategic Regional Plan
  Doñana is one of the most important and sensitive environmental areas in Europe.

It is the stepping-stone for migratory birdlife between Europe and Africa during the winter season. Sand dunes have been forming and advancing for 6000 years. The ecosystem is alive and has been transforming in permanence with substantial and progressive changes since Roman times. Protection, monitoring and non-disruptive benefits have to be the main objectives of any policy on the Doñana ecosystem.

This paper was produced for the Universities of Milano and Seville as a proposal for the implementation of a plan and policies proposal on Doñana management for the Regional Government of Andalusia.
7) Nuevo Prado: Pedro Ortiz and Cristina Chaves
  Madrid Metropolitan evolution XVII XX C. Atocha Urban Design Plan
  Madrid has shifted its axes of growth three times during its history.

1) The east-west axis of Arab and Christian Madrid from the 10th century to the 18th century along the Calle Mayor and Calle Alcala axis, across the Puerta del Sol towards the Plaza de Cibeles roundabout turning point.
2) The north-south axis of the industrialist Madrid of the 19th century Master Plan (1864) of Pedro Maria de Castro along the Castellana from Plaza de Castilla to Plaza de Atocha. The ‘Prolongacion de la Castellana’ project (Ricardo Bofill) is the last possible extension to the north of this axis which has been extending Madrid for a century and a half.
3) The east-west axis of the M-45 from the 20th Century onwards established by Madrid Metropolitan Plan of 1996.

Madrid’s growth is limited to the north by environmental values that must be preserved. The next extensions have to take place to the south. The 19th century axis of the Castellana and the 21st century axis of the M-45 have to be linked together to articulate the Metropolis. The articulation takes place with the extension to the south of the Castellana throughout the Atocha Rail Station, which actually becomes a bumping zone that needs to be opened up for the benefit of Madrid expansion into a new dimension.

This project, necessarily in metropolitan dimension, provides as well an occasion to extend and develop south the very relevant central quality urban space of ‘The Prado’ (and Museum) into a new urban centrality with enormous potential for social, institutional and cultural facilities as well as a reinforcement of Madrid Global City image.
Sevilla tiene un olor especial..., pero le falta visión.
  Pedro B. Ortiz Sevilla Metropolitan Metro Matrix Structural Strategic Planning
  Sevilla tiene un olor especial...
Sevilla es brillante en sus intangibles. La calidad e inteligencia urbana de Sevilla es innegable, admirable y deseable. Sevilla tiene mucho que enseñar...
Y que aprender!
Sevilla tienen una enorme sofisticación en el consumo. Pero la tiene en la producción? la renta per capita de Andalucía son 18.000 dólares. Como la de Bogota o CD Mexico. Quien tiene que aprender de quien?
Sevilla no ha comprendido todavía su estructura. Sigue pensando con miopía ideológica en una estructura concéntrica con desarrollos desestructurados, y criticados por ellos mismos desde la ignorancia académica.
Espero que estas notas les ayuden a aprender quienes son. Con mis mejores deseos.
Andalucia High Speed Train HST AVE Impact Regional Metropolitan planning
  The impact of the High Speed Train in Sapin ahs been very relevant since it's inauguration in 1992. This has give room for a substantial expansion of the network in the following years of Spanish economic growth and heavy infrastructure investements.
The report responds to the different perspectives this impact can be analysed.